You asked: How does the azygos system reroute blood around the obstruction?

What happens if the azygos vein is blocked?

Any blockage above the azygos vein may be rerouted into the SVC through the azygos system. However, when the SVC is blocked at the level of the azygos, blood may only enter the heart through the inferior vena cava (IVC).

What would happen in the circulatory system if the superior vena cava is obstructed superior to the entrance of the Azygous vein?

In superior vena cava syndrome, the azygos vein may be filled by anterograde or retrograde flow. If the obstruction is above the azygos vein, the flow direction will be retrograde.

What is a collateral vein?

The collateral veins consist of mediastinal connections between the innominate veins and the superior pulmonary veins through bronchial venous plexuses around the airways, hilar vessels, and pleura.

Where does the superior vena cava receive blood from?

In addition to the innominate veins, the superior vena cava receives blood from the azygous vein and small veins from the mediastinum (the region between the two lungs) and the pericardium.

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Where does azygos vein drain to?

The azygos vein usually arises either from the lumbar azygos vein or from the posterior side of inferior vena cava around the level of renal veins. It passes through the diaphragm, reaches the mediastinum and finally drains into the superior vena cava.

Where does blood from the azygos vein go?

The azygos vein transports deoxygenated blood from the posterior walls of the thorax and abdomen into the superior vena cava vein. The anatomy of this blood vessel can be quite variable.

What happens if the inferior vena cava is blocked?

A blockage in the inferior vena cava (IVC) can lead to chronic leg swelling, pain, and immobility, according to the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) IVC Filter Clinic. There may be other health complications depending on a person’s age and preexisting medical conditions.

What does the superior vena cava drain?

The superior vena cava is a vital structure in the human circulatory system that helps drain large amounts of deoxygenated blood from the head, eyes, neck, and upper limbs into the upper left chamber (atrium) of the heart.

What is the purpose of the azygos vein?

It is responsible for draining the thoracic wall and upper lumbar region via the lumbar veins and posterior intercostal veins 1. It also provides important collateral circulation between the superior and inferior venae cavae should they become obstructed 2.

Can blood vessels reroute?

Peripheral artery bypass is surgery to reroute the blood supply around a blocked artery in one of your legs. Fatty deposits can build up inside the arteries and block them. A graft is used to replace or bypass the blocked part of the artery.

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How can you tell the difference between SVC and IVC obstruction?

In patients with dilated abdominal wall veins due to cirrhosis, the direction of blood flow is away from the umbilicus (radiating like a star from the umbilicus), whereas in vena caval obstruction, the direction of blood flow is either completely above downward (superior venacaval obstruction) or completely below …

What are arteriovenous shunts?

Arteriovenous shunts are abnormal connections between coronary arteries and a compartment of the venous side of the heart. The abnormal connection may originate in the right or left coronary artery, or, more rarely, multiple shunts originating in both arteries may be present.

How does blood enter the superior vena cava?

Blood enters the heart through two large veins – the posterior (inferior) and the anterior (superior) vena cava – carrying deoxygenated blood from the body into the right atrium. Blood flows from the right atrium into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve.

Which region does the superior vena cava drain?

The superior vena cava (SVC) starts at the confluence of the brachiocephalic veins behind the first right costal cartilage, and ends at the level of the third right costal cartilage where it drains into the right atrium.